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Amin Muhammad

Psychiatry
M.B.B.S., FRCPsych, FRCP, Ph.D., FRCPC

Clinical Professor of Psychiatry

Discipline of Psychiatry
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Rm: 1174 Prince Phillip Dr., NL.
A1B 3V6
t: 709 777-8663
f:
lab:

amin.muhammad@med.mun.ca


CO-ORDINATOR: TRANSCULTURAL PSYCHIATRY

QUALIFICATIONS:

Basic:

M.B.B.S.   1984  Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan

Additional:

FRCPsych,  Royal College Psychiatrists, London

MRCPsych,  Royal College Psychiatrists, London

FRCPI, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland

FRCPC, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

MCPsychI Member of College of Psychiatry-Ireland

Ph.D. Anglia University, England

Other:

BCPsych (Board Certification in Psychiatry)Institute of Psychiatry/University of London

DPM Conjoint Board of Royal College of Surgeons and Physicians in Ireland

DCP (Diploma in Clinical Psychiatry) Conjoint Board of Royal College of Physicians & College of Surgeons – Ireland

MCPS College of Physicians & Surgeons, Pakistan

PSYCHIATRIC EXPERIENCE

Broader exposure in Adult General Psychiatry, Geriatric Psychiatry, experience in Alcohol Treatment Centre, Community Psychiatry, Mental Handicap (Learning Disability) Services, Liaison Psychiatry and Forensic Psychiatry in the UK. Main area of interest is Transcultural Psychiatry.

ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERIENCE

As the vice principal of the Medical College where I worked earlier, my responsibilities included:

  • Formulating policies for the nature and organization of the academic program;
  • Developing major departments and appointing to senior staff positions;
  • Allocating human resources, recommending promotions and managing financial resources;
  • Coordinating the work of the various departments;
  • Representing the institution in various academic and official capacities;
  • Planning, organization, management and evaluation of delivery of healthcare services within the departments;
  • Devising methods for evaluation and monitoring;
  • Forward planning (institutional development, staffing, healthcare projects and equipment);
  • Promoting research and preparing extensive reports and papers.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

Taught medical students, nurses, social workers, community health workers, junior and postgraduate doctors throughout medical career.

Acted as Supervisor for postgraduate students completing their theses for MPH (Master of Public Health), MD (Doctor of Medicine in Psychiatry) and Ph.D.

ACHIEVEMENTS

  • Promoting and establishing the nascent discipline of ethnopsychiatry in Pakistan;
  • Raising establishment and public awareness of the issues involved;
  • Service on government advisory committees in Pakistan;
  • Developing and facilitating numerous formative community-based mental health projects;
  • Related academic innovation, publishing and research.

PUBLICATIONS
Over 100 articles on health topics have been published medical and lay press. Few of the scientific articles are mentioned hereunder:

Since my Doctorate the following articles were published.

1.-Editorial. Scope of Ethnopsychiatry in Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 1996,Vol.46, PG:119.

2.-Summary “Children of the Corn”, The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1996,vol.17, No.17-18, pg:24-25.

3.-Psychiatrist and the Shaman, The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.4, pg:8-9.

4.-Editorial, Magnitude of Juvenile Criminality in Pakistan. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.4, pg:6-7.

5.-General Practitioners and Mental Health. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.3, pg:5-6.

6.-Traditional Practices & Childhood Diarrhoea. JCPSP, 1997,Vol. 7, (l)pg.27-29.

7.- Community Mental Health in Eds (M.Iliyas et al) Community Medicine & Public Health, Ch.25, 4th ed., pg.386-396, Time Traders, Urdu Bazar, Karachi. 1997

8.- Editorial. Doctor-Patient Communication. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.53, pg:7-13.

9.- Editorial Magnitude of “Torture”. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.9, pg:3-4.

10.- “Study conducted at Juvenile Prison in Karachi - overview-1” Pakistan Paediatric Journal, 1997,Vol.21, No.1, pg:7-12.

11.- “Knowledge of Depression Among General Practitioners”. JCPSP, 1997,Vol. 7, No.6, pg.249-251.

12.- Editorial Traditional and Modern Medicine. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.11-12, pg:03.

13.- Ethnopsychiatry in Paediatrics. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1997,vol.18, No.11-12, pg:28.

14.- Depression in the Cultural Context. The Medical Spectrum, PMA, 1998,vol.19, No.1-2, pg:10-12.

15.- “Shamanic concept & Treatment of Mental Illness in Pakistan”. JCPSP, 1998,Vol.8, No.1, p: 33-35.

16.- “Doctor-patient communication”, JCPSP, 1998,Vol. 8, p:72-74.

17.- “Management of depression”, Editorial, The Medical Spectrum, 1998, vol.19, no.5, p:73.

18.- “Socio demographic profile of epileptics”, The Medical Spectrum, 1998, vol. 19, no.5, p:85-86.

19.-“Depression among abused children”, JCPSP, 1998, Vol.8(4), p:174-176.

20.-“Mental Health Morbidity: an experience in a community psychiatric clinic”, JCPSP, 1998,Vol 8(6), p:262-4.

21.- “Mental health morbidity pattern in Pakistan”, JCPSP, 1999, vol.9(8), p:362-365.

22.- “A preliminary study of educational intervention program for alternative mental health practitioners”, JCPSP, 2001,vol.11(4), p:232-8.

23.-“Magnitude of stress among medical practitioners”, JCPSP, 2001,vol.11(4), p:275-7.

24.-“Psychiatric case-note auditing”, JCPSP, vol.11, No.9, 2001, P:559-560

25.-“Pattern of mental health morbidity” –JCPSP, Vol.11, No.11, 2001, P:706-708.

26.-Editorial – “State of mental health in Pakistan”, JPMA, 2001, Vol.51, No.7, P:238-9.

27.-“A preliminary report on an ongoing anthropological study”, JCPSP, 2002, Vol.12, No.3, P:195-196.

28.-“ State of Mental Health in Pakistan – Education, Service and Research”, 2002, Ed-1, Corporate Printers, Karachi Pakistan

29.-“Quest for defining mental health”, Editorial, JCPSP, Vol.12, No.2, 2002, P:65-66

30.-“Prescribing trends in a community psychiatric clinic”, JCPSP, Vol.13, No.4, 2003, P:237-238.

31.-“Subthreshold mental disorder”, Editorial. JPMA, Vol.53, No.2, 2003, P42-43.

32.-“Liaison psychiatry and referral rates among hospitalized patients”, JCPSP, Vol13, No.5, 2003, P:274-276.
   
33.-“Healthcare service delivery by shamans”, Intl J Mental Health, New York, Summer Issue, 2003; Vol. 32; No.2; pp: 63-83

34.-“Ethnopsychiatry – a review”, JPMA, 2003, Vol.53 No. 10; pp:483-90 .

35.-“Out-of-Pocket Expenditure for Depression among Patients Attending Private Community Psychiatric Clinics in Pakistan”, published in Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, Italy.

36.-“Obsessive compulsive disorder in a local community”, JCPSP, 2003, Vol. 13 No. 10; pp: 581-83.

37.-“Uses and limitations of ethnotherapy”, in Intl J Mental Health, New York, vol 133, summer/winter issue 2004/05, p: 54-

38.-“Decline in morbidity pattern through a model community project– a report of success from Pakistan- Submitted for general press publication.

39- Quest for culturally relevant classification in psychiatry.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2006 Feb; 56(2):92-3.

40- Primary care psychiatry in Pakistan--a long way ahead.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2006 Feb; 56(2):49-50.

41- MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH IN PAKISTAN AND THE DEVELOPING WORLD.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006 Mar; 16(3):169-170

42- Criminality and mental health: implications for society.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2005 Sep; 55(9):360-2

43- Disaster psychiatry: need for appraisal.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005 Nov;15(11):667.

44- Polypharmacy practice in psychiatry.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005 Aug; 15(8):451-3.

45- Pattern of tobacco consumption among adult women of low socioeconomic community Karachi, Pakistan.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2005 Mar; 55(3):111-4.

46- Prevalence of depression and the associated risks factors among adult women in a fishing community.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2004 Oct; 54(10):519-25.

47-Mental Health in Pakistan: Where do we stand? J Pak Med Assoc. Editorial, 2006, vol 56, no. 5, p: 198-199.

48- Healing powers among doctors: Is there a role for mysticism. Letter, JCPSP, 2006, March issue, p: 313.

49- Disaster, mental health and rescuing medical professionals. Editorial. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 2005: 17(4), p: 1-3.

50- Impact of International Recruitment of Psychiatrists on the Health System of Pakistan.        Editorial. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2006, Vol 16(7): 441-4.

51-E-Psychiatry: Uses and Limitations. Review article. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006, vol 56. no. 7, p: 327-332.

52- International recruitment: a Pakistani perspective. Correspondence. International Psychiatry, 2006, vol 3, number 4, p: 25.

53- Medical System: Need for Appraisal and Suggestions. Letter. JCPSP, 2006, vol 16(10), P:
681.

54- A career as a Canadian psychiatrist. BMJ Careers, 2006; 333:155-156.

55-Should the patients have access to their medical case note?-the local perspective. Editorial. J Coll Phys Surg Pak, 2006, 16(11): 683-4.

56-Human rights and international recruitment of psychiatrists: dilemma for developing countries. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006, vol 56, number 10, p: 474-476.

57-Jinni Possession: A clinical enigma in mental health. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006, vol 56, number 10, p: 476-478.

58-Dilemma facing IMGs from Pakistan. BMJ Careers, 2006; 333:179.

59-Exposure to Western Psychiatry Is a Right. Clinical Psychiatry News, Elsevier,   2006, vol 34, issue 11, p: 16.

60-Mental Health Model: Comparison between a developed and a developing country. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, SJI, 2006, vol 1, issue 1; p: 1-7.

61-Plagiarism: How serious is this problem in Pakistan? Letter. J Pak Med Assoc 2006, vol 56, No. 12, p: 618.

62-Prevalence of depression among households in three capital cities of Pakistan: Need to revise the mental health policy- PLoS one 2(2):e209, 2007.

63-International Migration of doctors from developing countries: Need to follow the Common Wealth Code. J Med Ethics, 2008;34;67-68.

64- Could there be a role for shamans in the health care delivery system of Pakistan? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no.2, p: 101-103.

65- Role of Shamans in a multidisciplinary mental health team. J Coll Phys Surg, 2007, vol 17(3): 183.

66-Demonic-Possession Phenomenon Merits Scientific Study. Psychiatr News, March 16, 2007, volume 42, number 6, p: 12. American Psychiatric Association.

67-Karo-Kari: disturbed psyche or wild ego? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no.3, p: 112-113.

68-Death wish or suicidal ideation: Implications for management. J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no3, p: 156-157.

69- Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: A new balance sheet. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, 2007, volume 1, issue 2; p: 1-21.

70- Shared care model for mental health: Is it a viable option for Pakistan? JCPSP, 2007, Vol. 17(4): 185-186.

71- Is there a visible mental health policy in Pakistan? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 4, p: 212-3.

72- Bullying in psychiatry must stop. Clinical Psychiatric News, May 07, vol 35, issue 5, page 11.

73-Psychiatric training: a comparison between Canada and Pakistan. Is there a common ground? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 5, p: 267-271.

74-The Suicide Note: What can be done in the light of its implications? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 6; p: 327-328.

75- Eligibility for appointment as ‘Dean’ of a medical school. Are the criteria being met? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 6; p: 331.

76- Cost implication for management of psychiatric illnesses in Pakistan: role of alternate, religious and formal practices. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, SJI, 2007, vol 1, issue 2; p: 1-8.

77- Manora Island Project: A model primary care project in Pakistan. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, SJI, 2007, vol 1, issue 1; p: 1-8.

78- Will future psychiatry be ‘organic-based’? Evidences from radiology cannot be ignored. JCPSP, 2007, vol 7(6): 384-385.

79-Medical doctors in media: Is this a viable alternate career option? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 7, p: 379-80.

80- Professional behaviour of doctors: are we meeting the criteria? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 8, p: 425-27.

81- Mentorship programme in Psychiatry: a Canadian initiative. BMJ Career Focus 2007; 335:120

82- Cultural competence is not optional. Clinical Psychiatry News, October 2007, vol 35, number 10, p: 13.

83- Spiritual dimension of mental health: do we have adequate insight? J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 10, p: 522-523.

84- Going home to rebuild hopes for a career. Hospital Doctor, 24th October, 2007, UK.

85- Mentorship Program in Mental Health: Time to develop a new academic relationship, J Pak Med Assoc, 2007, vol 57, no. 11, p: 527-528.

86- Battling Mental Illness Within Our Ranks: Clinical Psychiatry News, January 2008, vol 36; no. 1, p: 12

87- Referral letter from family physician to psychiatrist: Would it have educational, service or research implications? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 1; p: 47.

88- The way I see it-A lesson learnt, BMJ Career Focus 2008; 336:42.

89- Research qualifications in Medicine: What is the importance? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 2, p: 93-4.

90- Safe medical practice in Pakistan: are we prepared to adopt a path? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 3, p: 145-147.

91- Is Power the Ultimate Addiction? Clinical Psychiatry News, March 2008, vol 38; no. 3, p: 15.

92- Boundary violations in medical practice: what should be done?  J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 4, p: 211-213.

93- Accepting gifts from patients: how ethical can this be in the local context?  J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 5, p: 281-282.

94- Migration of Doctors: Should we apply the Index of Happiness? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 6, p: 342-344.

95- A pilot study of bullying and harassment among medical professionals in Pakistan, focusing on psychiatry: need for a medical ombudsman. J Med Ethics 2008; 34: 463-466.

96- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): should we officially include this form of treatment? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 7, p: 413-414.

97- The linguistic aspect of the medical research papers-Need to develop insight. Editorial. JDUHS, 2008, vol 2(1); p: 1-2.

98- Expression of depressive symptoms, Regional variations: A comparison of three cities in Pakistan. Psychiatric Annals, 2008; volume 38, number 7; p:

99- Quest for a universal psychiatrist: How long is the journey? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 8, p: 465-466.

100- Abuse of mentally ill patients: are we ignoring the human rights principle? J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 9, p: 523-524.

101- Let’s make mental health a global priority, Clinical Psychiatry News, October 2008; vol 36, no. 10; p: 8.

102- Should there be an age of retirement for the doctors? A matter for debate; J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 11, p: 652-3.

103- Aftermath of child abuse: Need to reduce the burden of morbidity.  J Pak Med Assoc, 2008, vol 58, no. 12, p: 710-11.

104- Karo-Kari: A form of honor killing in Pakistan. Transcult Psychiatry, 2008 Dec; 45(4): 683-94.

105- Ecology and Mental Health: Time to understand Ecopsychiatry, J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no. 1, p: 56-7.

106- Myth of reincarnation: a challenge for mental health profession. J Med Ethics 2009; 35: 91.

107- Homosexuality: Are we adequately prepared equipped to address this issue in clinical practice? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no 3; p: 185-6.

108- Medical Referees: How fair is the verdict? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no 4; p: 257-8.

109-Mental Illness among doctors: How serious can this be? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no 5; p: 326-7.

110-Stalking and Mental Health: Do we need guidelines? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no 7; p: 493-4.

111-Torture and Doctors: An ethical dilemma? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no 8; p: 573-4.

112- Terrorism and Mental Health: The issue of psychological fragility, J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no. 10; p: 725-6.

113- Prevention of Depression: Would it relieve the burden of morbidity? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no. 11; p: 796-7.

114- Crisis Response in Mental Health: Do we have a guideline? J Pak Med Assoc, 2009, vol 59, no. 12; p: 860-1.

115- Elderly Abuse: Tip of the ice berg. Editorial; J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 1; p: 3-4.

116- Whistle blowing: do we have courage? Editorial; J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 2; p: 75-6.

117- Personal Space: Implications in patient-doctor relationship. J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 4; p: 321-2.

118- Depression in males: Is this matter more serious? J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 6; p: 504-5
.
119- Corridor consultations: Should this practice be discouraged? J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 8; p: 694-5.

120- Should doctors and patients be friends? Can this lead to an ethical dilemma? J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 10; p: 875-6.

121- Professional competence assessment: Is it a wakeup call for Pakistan? J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 11; p: 965-6.

122- Mood disorder associated with gastrointestinal and liver diseases: Are there many challenges? J Pak Med Assoc, 2010, vol 60, no. 12; p: 1064-5.

123- Corruption in medical practice: How far have we gone? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 1; p: 93-4.

124- Refugee Mental Health: Is it an unrelieved burden? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 2  p: 193-4.

125- Homelessness and Mental Health: Are we neglecting this grave issue? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 3  p: 299-300.

126-Verbal Abuse: Does it lead to Mental Disorder? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 4, p: 404-5.

127- Possession: a clinical enigma-BMJ Case Reports 2011; doi:1136/bcr.01.2011.3725.

128- Sturge-Weber Syndrome: neurology-psychiatry interface- BMJ Case Reports 2011;doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2011.3817.

129- Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon? BMJ Case Reports 2011;doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2010.3456.

130- Paranormal Phenomena: Is there a role for mental health professionals? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 5 p: 506-7.

131- Medical Negligence: A growing problem in Pakistan J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 6,  p: 610-11.

132- Smoking and Mental Health: Do we have adequate insight? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 7, p: 709-10.

133- Nutritional factors in Mental Health: Does ‘Epigenetics’ provide a road map? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 8, p: 823-4.

134- Medical Marijuana: Can we think about it?  J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 9, p: 932-3.

135- Risperidone associated tardive dyskinesia-a less common phenomenon. BMJ Case Reports 2011;doi:10.1136/bcr.07.2011.4471.

136- Gender Dysphoria: An occult challenge for medical profession. J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 11, p: 1145-1146.

137- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Psychosis NOS, in an asexual male: a diagnostic challenge BMJ Case Reports 2011; doi: 10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4807.

138- Cell Phone and Brain: How do they interact? J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, vol 61, no. 12, p: 1249-50.

BOOKS

1.    “State of mental health in Pakistan – education, research and services”
2.    “Teaching of Psychiatry-Curriculum, mode of delivery and assessment”
3.    “Society & Mental illness”.
4.    “Wounds of soul”
5.    “Culture and Mental health:”
6.    “Scientific Articles on Psychiatry”
7.      “Weather of sorrow” 


List of articles/press briefings published in newspapers

1-    Holistic approach needed to mental health-Times and Transcript, Canada 11/10/05
2-    Lessons to be learned from Pakistan-The Telegram, Canada 7/12/06
3-    MUN psychiatrist studies possession-The Telegram, Canada 2-8/11/2006
4-    Transcultural killing could migrate to Canada-The Telegram, Canada 11/6/07
5-    Challenges for mental health in cultural diversity-The Telegram, Canada 10/10/07
6-    Bullying among medical professionals- The Telegram, Canada 3/11/07
7-    Bullying article not meant to be scientific-The Telegram, Canada 18/11/07
8-    Hyperreligiosity and Culture: the role of mental health-The Telegram, Canada 12/1/08
9-    Power Addiction: should it find place in psychiatric diagnostic classification?-The Telegram, Canada 2/12/07
10-    Days of thunder: Diary of a psychiatrist-The Telegram, Canada  3/2/08
11-    Political rollercoaster in Pakistan- The Telegram, Canada 16/2/08
12-    Newfoundland and Labrador weather: good or bad for mental health? The Telegram, Canada 10/5/08
13-    Making mental health a global priority-The Telegram, Canada 10/10/08
14-    A war of words over honor killing-National Post, Canada 15/11/08
15-    College of Psychiatry-A truly commendable step-Irish Medical Times, Ireland on line 30/1/09
16-    Televideo interviewing is a fairer method-Irish Medical Times, Ireland on line 11/2/09
17-    Making it easier for doctors to immigrate- Times and Transcript, Canada 18/2/09
18-    Re-living the Irish experience in Newfoundland-Irish Medical Times, Ireland on line 6/3/09.
19-    Suicide bombers deconstructed. Clinical Psychiatry News; 2009, April.
20-    Dilemmas of developing countries: to stay or go. Irish Medical Times, Ireland on line 26/4/09.
21-    Haunted by past lives? National Post, Canada dated: 30th May, 2009.
22-    A week with the NHS: a view from the outside, Irish Medical Times, Ireland 24th July, 2009.
23-     Mental Health Care: Are we doing enough? The Telegram, Canada 10/10/09.
24-     Integrating Mental Health into Primary Care, Clinical Psychiatry News, 2009; October.
25-     Mental Health, Meet primary Care, Family Practice News, 2009; October.
26-     Honour Killing: An apt description of a murder with cultural overtones or an inherently racist term? National Post: www.stop-stoning.org/node/470 date accessed: 25/07/2009.
27-     Shining a light on honour killings’ dark corner. The Star; available at: www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/671779 date accessed: 25/07/2009.
28-    Canada faces prospect of more ‘Honour Killing’ cases: Expert. The Canadian Press; available at: http://news.aol.ca/article/canada-faces-prospect-of-more-honour-killing-cases-expert/681 date accessed: 25/07/2009.
29-     ‘Honour killing’ cases spark debates over religion, racism, Canwest News Service; available at: www.kelowna.com/2009/07/24/honour-killing-cases-spark-debates-over-religion-racism date accessed: 25/07/2009.
30-    ‘Honour killings’ could enter legal lexicon, The Canadian Press; available at: www.thespec.com/News/CanadaWorld/article/605933 date accessed: 25/07/2009.
31-     Canada: “Honour Killing” investigated in death of three Montreal sisters; available at: www.realcourage.org/2009/07/montreal-sisters-deaths/ date accessed: 25/07/2009.
32-    Honour killings: domestic abuse by another name? CBC Canada; available at: www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/07/24/f-honour-killings.html date accessed: 25/07/2009.
33-    Rise in Canadian ‘honour killings’ should not be ignored: expert, National Post; available at: www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=1821919 date accessed: 24/07/2009.
34-    Factors that lead to ‘Honour’killings and their psychological effects; available at: http://whyhonorkillings.blogspot.com/2009/04/factors-that-lead-to-honor-killings-and.html date accessed: 27/09/2009.
35-    ‘Honour killings’ of girls and women on the rise in Canada: expert, Canwest News Service, July 23, 2009. Available at: www.canada.com/Honour+killings+girls+women+rise+Canada+expert/1823895/ date accessed: 25/07/2009.
36-    Accused in canal deaths to plead not guilty, The Star; available at: www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/671780 date accessed: 25/07/2009.
37-     Honour killings new to Canada. Times and Transcript; available at: http://timestranscript.canadacast.com/rss/article/739259 date accessed: 18/10/2009.
38-    Case of runaway convert leads to Muslim-Christian clash. Christian Science Monitor; available at: www.csmonitor.com/2009/1015/p02s07-ussc.html date accessed: 18/10/2009.
39-    New citizenship guide says no to ‘barbaric’ practices. National Post Canada, available at: www.nationalpost.com/most-popular/story.html?id=2216251 date accessed: 13/11/2009.
40-     Grass is not always greener for physicians who move, The Telegram; 15/11/2009.
41-    Study says post-traumatic stress disorder being over-diagnosed, Canadian Press; available at: www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5hhmLs9bqoqE0q7ha date accessed: 15/1/2009.
42-     Licensure in Canada: What is required? Irish Medical Times, available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2009/11/licensure_in_canada_what_is_re.html date accessed: 18/11/2009.
43-     Voice box: a Canadian perspective, BMA News; issue: 21 November 2009; British Medical Association; available at: http://web2.bma.org.uk/nrezine.nsf/wd/ESML-7XWH79?oPENdOCUMENT&C=21+November+2009., date accessed: 20/11/2009.
44-    Mentorship scheme in psychiatry, Irish Medical Times; available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/01/mentorship_scheme_in_psychiatry.thml date accessed: 27/1/2010.
45-     Entry scheme gets tougher, BMA News; issue: 6th February 2010; British Medical Association; available at: http://web2.bma.org.uk/nrezine.nsf/wd/BSKN-82CMX6?OpenDocument&C=6+February+2010, date accessed: 5/2/2010.
46-    The two Pakistans, The Telegram, issue of 6th February, 2010.
47-  First past the post. Irish Medical Times; available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/02/first_past_the_post.html date accessed: 22/02/2010.
48-  Can nostalgia lead to clinical depression? Clinical Psychiatry News; issue February, 2010.
49-  A qualification of one’s own. Irish Medical Times; available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/03/a_qualification_of_ones_own.html date accessed: 02/03/2010.
50-  More than miles separate Pakistan and Newfoundland. Psychiatric News; issue March 19, 2010. Available at: http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/45/6/9.1.full... date accessed: 19th March, 2010.
51-  New horizons in psychiatric care. Irish Medical Times; available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/04/new_horizons_in_psychiatric_ca.html date accessed: 14th April, 2010.

52-      Impact of terrorism on mental health. Irish Medical Times; available at: www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/05/impact_of_terrorism_on_mental.html. date accessed: 6th May, 2010.
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